Swift: What Are Inout Parameters?

Swift inout parameters allow you to change an input passed into a function inside that function.

func change(_ number: inout Int){
    number = 2

var number = 1


In this guide, you learn why inout parameters are needed in Swift and how they work.

Swift Function Parameters Cannot Be Changed

In Swift, changing the value of a parameter passed into a function is not possible. This is because a function argument is a constant, and constants cannot be modified.

For example, this piece of code does not run because you try to change the parameter in a function:

func change(_ number: Int) {
    number = 2

var number = 1

But sometimes it can be useful if you could change the parameter passed into a function.

As it turns out, this is possible by using inout parameters.

Inout Parameters in Swift

This is where inout parameters help: An inout parameter can be modified inside a function and the changes apply outside the function.

To turn a function parameter into a variable that can be changed inside a function:

  1. Mark the parameter with inout.
  2. Use & when passing a parameter value into the function call.


For instance, let’s write a function that takes an argument that gets updated in the function:

func change(_ number: inout Int){
    number = 2

var number = 1




As you can see, a change was made to the number input inside a function, but the change applies outside the function too.


Swift inout parameter is a parameter that can be changed inside the function where it’s passed into.

  • To accept inout parameters, use the inout keyword in front of an argument.
  • To pass a variable as an inout parameter, use the & operator in front of the parameter.

Thanks for reading.

Happy coding!

Further Reading

iOS Development Tips

Useful Swift Tips

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