# R

## How to Calculate Time Difference in R [difftime(), lubridate]

To calculate the time difference between two dates in R, you can use the built-in difftime() function. For example: Output: This function supports seconds, minutes, hours, days, and weeks as the time unit. But to calculate the time difference in months or years, you should rely on a library. This is a comprehensive guide to […]

## R outer() Function: A Complete Guide (with Examples)

In R, the outer() function runs a function on two vectors, creating a result matrix. The generic syntax for using the outer() function is as follows: Where x and y are vectors (or scalars) and the FUN is a function that is called on each combination of the elements in the two input vectors. This

## How to Use \$ in R: A Complete Guide (with 6 Examples)

To efficiently deal with dataframes and lists in R, you need to be able to access the columns or values in an easy and readable way. This is where you can use the dollar sign operator (\$). This operator retrieves the value or column by a name after which you can easily read, modify, or

## R ifelse() Function: A Complete Guide (with Examples)

R is a data science and data analysis language that deals with vectors all the time. To make decision-making quicker with vectorized data, there’s a built-in ifelse function you can call on vectors. This function performs an elementwise if…else check on the vector and returns a result vector based on the conditions. In a sense,

## The %in% Operator in R: A Complete Guide (with Examples)

In R, you can use the %in% operator to check if a value (or values) belong to a vector. The above reads “a exists in b”. The result is a boolean value or a list of booleans. This is a comprehensive guide to using the %in% operator in R. Because checking the existence of values

## How to Measure Execution Time in R (5 Methods + Examples)

Measuring the execution time is common in programming to get a better idea of how a program or a part of the code is performing. This is a comprehensive guide to measuring the elapsed time in R. In this guide, there are some built-in mechanisms and examples of popular libraries’ ways of computing the execution

## The seq() Function in R: A Complete Guide (with Examples)

Dealing with number sequences in data science is common. Having the tools to easily produce sequences of numbers of different lengths, stepsizes, and start/end values is crucial. This way you can avoid having to write loops to produce number sequences over and over again. In R, you can use the built-in seq() function to create

## The names() Function in R: A Complete Guide (with Examples)

In R, there’s a built-in function names() you can use to get or set the values of an R object. For example, you can set the names of list elements or the names of the columns in a data frame. This comprehensive guide teaches you how to use the names() function with a bunch of